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  • Argo Chinese National Report 2015
  • Author:China Argo Real-time Data Center   Source:Argo  Pubtime:2016-03-08 14:15:43   Hit:

  • The 17th Argo Steering Team Meeting, Yokohama, Japan, March 22-24, 2016

    Argo Chinese National Report 2015

    (Jianping Xu & Zenghong Liu, The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA)

     

    1.  The status of implementation

      - floats deployed and their performance

          From March 2015 to February 2016 China deployed 16 profiling floats in the western Pacific and Indian oceans. These floats come from 4 PIs of 3 institutions in China, which includes 5 Iridium APEX floats deployed by Dake Chen from CSIO, 6 HM-2000 floats deployed by DongLiang Yuan from IOCAS, 4 APEX floats deployed by Jianping Xu from CSIO, and 1 PROVOR float deployed by Navigation Guarantee Department. The number of deployment decreased dramatically compared with that of 2014 owing to the status of China Argo which is supported by research programs. As of January 2016, China has deployed about 353 profiling floats in the Pacific and Indian oceans including 183 Argo equivalent floats. Now there are 170 active floats working in the seas (Figure1). In September 2015, China deployed 6 HM-2000 floats in the WBC of western Pacific ocean. It was the first deployment of floats developed by China as Argo equivalent floats. HM-2000 float uses Beidou satellite System (BDS) for data transmission and GPS for positioning. However, it can be switched between GPS and BDS for positioning. After deployment, 1 float did not transmit any data, and another float transmitted bad salinity measurements owing to the problem of its CTD sensor. Two-way communication capacity has been tested successfully when some of the floats are likely to drifted outside of the BDS coverage. As of January 2016, 2 HM-2000 floats are still active. On average, the inactive floats repeated 72 cycles from their deployment.

      - contribution to international Argo

          Invited by PICES, Mr. Liu Zenghong attended the 24th North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) annual meeting held in Qingdao, China during October 14-25, as international Argo observer authorized by international Argo project office. He gave invited lectures entitled "Progress of global Argo" and "Progress of global Argo and float technology" at the three sessions (MONITORPOC and IPCC AR5), and also exhibited the important achievements from the beginning of international Argo project through a poster.

          On 27 January 2016, a review of "Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array" was online published byNature Climate Change, which was co-authored by 27 scientists from 18 different countries.  The publication of this review was reported by several China medias through which the influence of global Argo was expanded in China.  It will promote the applications of Argo data and attract more attention from government.

      - technical problems encountered and solved

          In 2015 there were 4 floats (2 PROVOR, 1 APEX and HM-2000) added into grey list due to obvious conductivity sensor drift. The reason is still under investigation.


    Fig.1  Launch positions of all floats (black) and latest positions of the active floats as of January 2016.

      -status of contributions to Argo data management (including status of pressure     corrections, technical files, etc)

          From the AST-16 meeting, China Argo received data from 214 active floats and submitted 7057 TS and 1000 O2 profiles to GDAC. CLS still helps us to insert all Argo profiles into GTS. However, CSIO started to insert data into GTS via Chinese Meteorological Agency (Beijing) from October 2015. All Argo profiles were converted to BUFR format through a Perl script developed by JMA. At present, profiles from Chinese floats are inserted into GTS by both CLS and CSIO. We plan to stop distributing bulletins by CLS after the AST-17 meeting. We would like to thank CLS for their helps. CSIO changed all the decoders from C language to Matlab, as well as RTQC and netcdf file generation. New decoders are very flexible due to usage of format table. We updated most of the meta files and technical files to V3.1 but not for trajectory files. We also created b-files from several bio-Argo floats except 17 PROVOR-DOI floats.

          CSIO setup a BeiDou data receiving system (including a Beidou Antenna) through which the messages from HM-2000 floats can be operationally received and decoded. At present, the selected cycles from HM-2000 floats are submitted to GDAC because the PI only wants to share 10-day cycles.

       - status of delayed mode quality control process

        In the past year, CSIO didn't submit any D-files to GDAC due to a poor manpower. Now we are restoring submission of D-files and updating all of the old D-files to V3.1. It should be noted that the China Argo equivalent floats has been more than half of the total floats, which will lead to an increased difficulty of carrying out DMQC.

    2.  Present level of and future prospects for national funding for Argo including a summary of the level of human resources devoted to Argo.

          China Argo is a non-operational program, the number of deployment is heavily relied on Argo related research programs. Now China Argo is mainly supported by Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).

          Currently there are 5 staffs working for float deployment, data processing and data application at CSIO. A few floats will be deployed by some special programs from SOA.

    3.  Summary of deployment plans (level of commitment, areas of float Deployment, low or high resolution profiles) and other commitments to Argo (data management) for the upcoming year and beyond where possible.

          We estimate that about 15 floats will be deployed in 2016 (including 4 HM-2000 floats). The number of China Argo equivalent float's deployment is difficult to count because it depends on whether or not PIs want to share their Argo data with others.

    4.  Summary of national research and operational uses of Argo data as well as contributions to Argo Regional Centers.  Please also include any links to national program Argo web pages to update links on the AST and AIC websites.

        Argo data has become an important data source in many studies about ocean variability from basin-scale to global-scale. Besides this, Argo data has also been used into operational assimilation system or reanalysis system. CSIO maintains a monthly global Argo gridded dataset (called BOA_Argo) and updates once a year. In 2015, we added SST, SSS and MLD into this dataset based on a mixed-layer model. The dataset was carefully verified using Levitus, TAO and other Argo gridded datasets (e.g. Scripps, IPRC, JAMSTEC). The dataset has been used by some scientists from China and their papers.

          There are two websites maintained by China, one is maintained by NMDIS (www.argo.gov.cn) at Tianjin (China Argo data center), and another is maintained by CSIO (www.argo.org.cn) at Hangzhou (China Argo Real-time data center). The implement status of China Argo, real-time data display including T/S/O2 profiles, float trajectory, profile data, the derived products and status of global Argo are presented. Meanwhile, GDACs, related international organizations and member’s Argo websites can be accessed through these two websites. Besides this, an Argo data inquiry system has been developed by CSIO based on Hadoop technology (http://101.71.255.4:8090/flexArgo/out/argo.html).

    5.  Problems encountered during the operation of international Argo and suggestions

          No.

    6.  To continue improving the number of CTD cruise data being added to the reference database by Argo PIs, it is requested that you include the number and location of CTD cruise data uploaded by PIs within your country to the CCHDO website in the past year. 

          No CTD data

    7.  Keeping the Argo bibliography

    An, Y., R. Zhang, and H. Wang, 2015: Spatial-temporal scales of temperature and salinity variability in the Northwest Pacific, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(1), 89-96 (in Chinese).

    Cao, Z., and R. Hu, 2015: Research on the interannual variability of the great whirl and the related mechanisms, Journal of Ocean University of China, 14(1), 17-26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-015-2392-8

    Chen, G., and H. Chen, 2015: Interannual Modality of Upper-Ocean Temperature: 4D Structure Revealed by Argo Data, J. Clim., 28(9), 3441-3452, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00351.1

    Chen, G., and F. Yu, 2015: An objective algorithm for estimating maximum oceanic mixed layer depth using seasonality indices derived from Argo temperature/salinity profiles, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(1), 582-595, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010383Du, Y., and Y. Zhang, 2015: Satellite and Argo Observed Surface Salinity Variations in the Tropical Indian Ocean and Their Association with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode, J. Clim., 28(2), 695-713, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00435.1

    Chen, Z., L. Wu, B. Qiu, L. Li, D. Hu, C. Liu, F. Jia, and X. Liang, 2015: Strengthening Kuroshio observed at its origin during November 2010 to October 2012, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(4), 2460-2470, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010590

    Cheng, L., J. Zhu, and R. L. Sriver, 2015: Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced short-term ocean thermal changes using Argo data, Ocean Sci., 11(5), 719-741, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-11-719-2015

    Cheng, L., F. Zheng, and J. Zhu, 2015: Distinctive ocean interior changes during the recent warming slowdown, Scientific Reports, 5, 14346, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14346

    Cheng, L., J. Zhu, and R. L. Sriver, 2015: Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced short-term ocean thermal changes using Argo data, Ocean Sci., 11(5), 719-741, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-11-719-2015

    Cheng, S., X. Zhang, and F. Shi, 2015: Comparison of Convergence Zone Features Under Three Different, Advances in Marine Science, 33(1), 56-62 (in Chinese).

    Hydrological EnVironment in the West Pacific Ocean in Summer

    Du, Y., Y. Zhang, M. Feng, T. Wang, N. Zhang, and S. Wijffels, 2015: Decadal trends of the upper ocean salinity in the tropical Indo-Pacific since mid-1990s, Scientific Reports, 5, 16050, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16050

    Feng, W., and M. Zhong, 2015: Global sea level variations from altimetry, GRACE and Argo data over 2005–2014, Geodesy and Geodynamics, 6(4), 274-279, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geog.2015.07.001

    Feng, Y., X. Chen, Q. Wang, and Y. Yuan, 2015: Mesoscale characteristics of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Pacific, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34(11), 92-101, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13131-015-0752-2

    Gao, T., and W. Gao, 2015: Phenomenon of ocean front and it impact on the sound propagation, Marine Forecasts, 32(5), 80-88 (in Chinese).

    Han, Y., and L. Zhou, 2015: Analysis of acoustic field in tropical l ndian Ocean upper based on Argo data, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(2), 180-186 (in Chinese).

    He, Z., M. Feng, D. Wang, and D. Slawinski, 2015: Contribution of the Karimata Strait transport to the Indonesian Throughflow as seen from a data assimilation model, Cont. Shelf Res., 92, 16-22, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2014.10.007

    Ji, F., T. Yu, M. Dong, and J. Liang, 2015: Method and Software for Eliminate Duplicate Data for WOD and Argo Datasets, Periodical of Ocean University of China, 45(8), 121-127 (in Chinese).

    Li, Y., and F. Wang, 2015: Thermocline spiciness variations in the tropical Indian Ocean observed during 2003–2014, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 97, 52-66, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2014.12.004

    Li, Y., W. Han, and T. Lee, 2015: Intraseasonal sea surface salinity variability in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean induced by Madden-Julian oscillations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(3), 2233-2258, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010647

    Li, Q. P., Y. Wang, Y. Dong, and J. Gan, 2015: Modeling long-term change of planktonic ecosystems in the northern South China Sea and the upstream Kuroshio Current, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(6), 3913-3936, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010609

    Li, J., Z. Jing, S. Jiang, D. Wang, and T. Yan, 2015: An observed cyclonic eddy associated with boundary current in the northwestern South China Sea, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 18(4), 454-461, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2015.1100959

    Liu, X., and J. Wei, 2015: Understanding surface and subsurface temperature changes induced by tropical cyclones in the Kuroshio, Ocean Dyn., 65(7), 1017-1027, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0851-9

    Liu, Z., Y. Hou, and Q. Xie, 2015: Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 33(5), 1320-1333, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-015-4397-y

    Lu, Z., J. Zhu, J. Han, and H. Yuan, 2015: Error analysis of the reprocessed SMOS L3/4 sea surface

    salinity products, Marine Science Bulletin, 34(4), 428-439 (in Chinese).

    Men, W., J. He, F. Wang, Y. Wen, Y. Li, J. Huang, and X. Yu, 2015: Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident, Sci. Rep., 5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep07757

    Nan, F., F. Yu, H. Xue, R. Wang, and G. Si, 2015: Ocean salinity changes in the northwest Pacific subtropical gyre: The quasi-decadal oscillation and the freshening trend, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(3), 2179-2192, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010536

    Pei, Y. H., R. H. Zhang, and D. K. Chen, 2015: Upper ocean response to tropical cyclone wind forcing: A case study of typhoon Rammasun (2008), Sci. China Earth Sci., 1-10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-015-5127-1

    Ruan, H., Y. Yang, F. Niu, and H. Wen, 2015: Analysis the characteristics of convergence zone in the east of Luzon Strait based on Argo data, Haiyang Xuebao, 37(7), 78-84 (in Chinese).

    Su, H., X. Wu, X.-H. Yan, and A. Kidwell, 2015: Estimation of subsurface temperature anomaly in the Indian Ocean during recent global surface warming hiatus from satellite measurements: A support vector machine approach, Remote Sens. Environ., 160, 63-71, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.01.001

    Sun, J., and L.-Y. Oey, 2015: The Influence of the Ocean on Typhoon Nuri (2008), Mon. Weather Rev., 143(11), 4493-4513, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0029.1

    Sun, J., L.-Y. Oey, R. Chang, F. Xu, and S.-M. Huang, 2015: Ocean response to typhoon Nuri (2008) in western Pacific and South China Sea, Ocean Dyn., 65(5), 735-749, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0823-0

    Sun, C., X. Wang, X. Cui, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Shao, X. Wu, H. Fu, and W. Li, 2015: Satellite derived upper ocean thermal structure and its application to tropical cyclone intensity forecasting in the Indian Ocean, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 33(5), 1219-1232, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-015-4114-x

    Tong, X., Z. Wang, and Q. Li, 2015: A method for correcting regional bias in SMOS global salinity products, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 33(4), 1072-1084, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-015-4196-5

    Wang, X., and H. Liu, 2015: Seasonal-to-interannual variability of the barrier layer in the western Pacific warm pool associated with ENSO, Climate Dynamics, 1-18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2842-4

    Wang, A., Y. Du, W. Zhuang, and Y. Qi, 2015: Correlation between subsurface high-salinity water in the northern South China Sea and the North Equatorial Current–Kuroshio circulation system from HYCOM simulations, Ocean Sci., 11(2), 305-312, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/os-11-305-2015

    Wang, R., F. Yu, and F. Nan, 2015: Weakening of subduction in the Subtropical Mode Water formation region observed during 2003–2013, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(11), 7271-7281, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JC010967

    Wang, F., N. Zang, Y. Li, and D. Hu, 2015: On the subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(1), 131-144, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013JC009690

    Wang, G., R. Zhang, and H. Wang, 2015: Experiments of sea temperature data assimilation based on various space filtering schemes, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(2), 173-179.

    Wang, H., et al., 2015: A review of seasonal climate prediction research in China, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(2), 149-168, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00376-014-0016-7

    Wang, J., J. Zhang, and J. Wang, 2015: Quality assessment of spaceborne microwave radiometer Aquarius data product based on Argo buoy data, Haiyang Xuebao, 37(3), 46-53 (in Chinese).

    Wang, T., Y. Du, W. Zhuang, and J. Wang, 2015: Connection of sea level variability between the tropical western Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean during recent two decades, Sci. China Earth Sci., 58(8), 1387-1396, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-014-5048-4

    Wu, G., F. Zhai, and D. Hu, 2015: Interannual variations of North Equatorial Current transport in the Pacific Ocean during two types of El Niño, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 1-12, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-015-4352-y

    Wu, L., and Z. Ling, 2015: Analysis of sea surface salinity response to typhoon in the Northwestern Pacific based on Argo data, Journal of Marine Sciences, 33(3), 1-6 (in Chinese).

    Wu, X., Z. Liu, G. Liao, and L. Wu, 2015: Variation of Indo-Pacific upper ocean heat content during 2001–2012 revealed by Argo, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34(5), 29-38, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13131-015-0664-1

    Xia, R., Q. Liu, L. Xu, and Y. Lu, 2015: North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water simulation and future projection, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34(3), 25-30, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13131-015-0630-y

    Xu, F.-H., and L.-Y. Oey, 2015: Seasonal SSH Variability of the Northern South China Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45(6), 1595-1609, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-14-0193.1

    Xuan, L., Y. Qiu, J. Xu., X. Zhang, and C. Shao, 2015: Seasonal variations of upper layer watermasses in eastern tropical Indian Ocean explored by Argo floats, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(2), 188-194 (in Chinese).

    Yan, X., and C. Sun, 2015: An altimetric transport index for Kuroshio inflow northeast of Taiwan Island, Sci. China Earth Sci., 1-10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-014-5024-z

    Yan, C., J. Zhu, and J. Xie, 2015: An ocean data assimilation system in the Indian Ocean and west Pacific Ocean, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(11), 1460-1472, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-4121-z

    Yan, C., J. Zhu, and J. Xie, 2015: An ocean data assimilation system in the Indian Ocean and west Pacific Ocean, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(11), 1460-1472, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-4121-z

    Yan, Y., G. Wang, C. Wang, and J. Su, 2015: Low-salinity water off West Luzon Island in summer, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(4), 3011-3021, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010465

    Yang, L., H. Zhou, and D. Yuan, 2015: Seasonal variability of meridional heat transport in interior Pacific Ocean, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(5), 484-491 (in Chinese).

    Yang, S., J. Ma, X. Wu, X. Wang, X. Fan, and W. Fan, 2015: Spatial analysis of the horizontal and vertical distribution of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35(15), 5040-5049 (in Chinese).

    Yang, S., B. Zhang, S. Jin, and W. Fan, 2015: Relationship between the temporal spatial distribution of longline fishing grounds of yellowfin tuna Thunnusalbadaresand the thermocline, Haiyang Xuebao, 37(6), 78-87 (in Chinese).

    characteristics in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

    Yang, T., and Y. Xu, 2015: Estimation of the time series of the meridional heat transport across 15°N in the Pacific Ocean from Argo and satellite data, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(4), 3043-3060, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JC010752

    Yang, T., Z. Chen, and Y. He, 2015: A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34(9), 85-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13131-015-0735-3

    Yang, G., W. Yu, Y. Yuan, X. Zhao, F. Wang, G. Chen, L. Liu, and Y. Duan, 2015: Characteristics, vertical structures, and heat/salt transports of mesoscale eddies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(10), 6733-6750, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JC011130

    Yi, S., W. Sun, K. Heki, and A. Qian, 2015: An increase in the rate of global mean sea level rise since 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(10), 3998-4006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063902

    Yu, K., T. Qu, C. Dong, and Y. Yan, 2015: Effect of subtropical mode water on the decadal variability of the subsurface transport through the Luzon Strait in the western Pacific Ocean, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(10), 6829-6842, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JC011016

    Zhang, C., and J. Xu, 2015: T/S distribution and variation in the Pacific based on Argo observations Part II: Salinity, Marine Science Bulletin, 34(1), 21-31 (in Chinese).

    Zhang, C., J. Xu, and X. Bao, 2015: Gradient-dependent correlation scale method based on Argo, Journal of PLA University of Science and Technology (Natural Science Edition), 16(5), 476-483 (in Chinese).

    Zhang, L., and T. Qu, 2015: Low-Frequency Variability of the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre as Seen from Satellite Altimetry and Argo, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45(12), 3083-3098, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-15-0026.1

    Zhang, W.-Z., H. Xue, F. Chai, and Q. Ni, 2015: Dynamical processes within an anticyclonic eddy revealed from Argo floats, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(7), 2342-2350, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063120

    Zhang, R.-H., C. Gao, X. Kang, H. Zhi, Z. Wang, and L. Feng, 2015: ENSO Modulations due to Interannual Variability of Freshwater Forcing and Ocean Biology-induced Heating in the Tropical Pacific, Scientific Reports, 5, 18506, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep18506

    Zhang, Z., P. Li, L. Xu, C. Li, W. Zhao, J. Tian, and T. Qu, 2015: Subthermocline eddies observed by rapid-sampling Argo floats in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean in Spring 2014, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42(15), 6438-6445, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064601

    Zhang, X., X. Wang, Y. Cao, L. Zhang, C. Shao, C. Sun, X. Wu, H. Fu, and L. Xuan, 2015: Climate modulation on sea surface height in China seas, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 33(5), 1245-1255, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-015-4120-z

    Zhang, X., C. Chen, and R. Qiu, 2015: Abnormal features of the convergence zone caused by the cold eddy in Western Pacific, Marine Science Bulletin, 34(2), 130-137 (in Chinese).

    Zhang, Z., D. Yuan, and B. Li, 2015: Analysis of circulation structure in the Northwest Pacific Ocean based on Argo profiles, Marine Sciences, 39(7), 93-102 (in Chinese).

    Zheng, F., and R.-H. Zhang, 2015: Interannually varying salinity effects on ENSO in the tropical pacific: a diagnostic analysis from Argo, Ocean Dyn., 65(5), 691-705, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-015-0829-7

    Zheng, F., H. Wang, and L. Wan, 2015: Effects of interannual salinity variability on the dynamic height in the western equatorial Pacific as diagnosed by Argo, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 34(5), 22-28, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13131-015-0663-2

    Zhi, H., R.-H. Zhang, P. Lin, and L. Wang, 2015: Simulation of salinity variability and the related freshwater flux forcing in the tropical Pacific: An evaluation using the Beijing normal university earth system model (BNU-ESM), Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(11), 1551-1564, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-4240-6

    Zhi, H., R.-H. Zhang, P. Lin, and L. Wang, 2015: Quantitative analysis of the feedback induced by the freshwater flux in the tropical Pacific using CMIP5, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32(10), 1341-1353, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00376-015-5064-0

    Zhu, X.-H., R. Zhao, X. Guo, Y. Long, Y.-L. Ma, and X. Fan, 2015: A long-term volume transport time series estimated by combining in situ observation and satellite altimeter data in the northern South China Sea, J. Oceanogr., 1-11, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10872-015-0305-5 

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